THE SOUTH DOWNS 223
mills that form a landmark seen from far over the Weald. They are now in rather sorry plight, and one of them has lost two sails. While water-mills date from Roman days, and many are mentioned in Domesday, the first authentic mention of a windmill in England is in the Chronicle of Josceline of Brakelonde, a monk of Bury St. Edmund's (the authority for much of Carlyle's Past and Present), written about 1190 ; the first in Sussex is apparently in 1199, at Bishopstone, in connection with Bishop Seffrid II. It is probable that the idea was brought to Western Europe by the Crusaders. Just below the hill is the ancient little church of Clayton, whose very high nave is Saxon. Long and short quoins in the north-west corner are still exposed, and the remarkable chancel arch has plain semicircular bands, interrupted merely by rough abaci. The small chancel is an Early English addition whose walls have been tarred. There are traces of frescoes, and an interesting brass of late date commemorates a former rector. "Of yr charitie pray for the Soule of Mayster Ried Idon p'son of Clayton and Pykeen, which decessed the vi day of lanuary, the yere of our Lord God M v c xx iij; on whose soule Ihu have mercy. Amen." The roof is partly covered with stone slabs, and on the west end is a square wooden turret whose vane is dated 1781.
Three or four miles over the Downs is the wall of Stanmer Park, which encloses the village and a good deal of agricultural land in addition to the hanging woods and the shaded turf expanses of the actual park. The house and church stand close together in a beautiful combe by a tree-shadowed pond ; the latter is modern and uninteresting. The house was built about 1724 by Thomas Pelham,