Sussex History


A Timeline Of English Monarchs

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Rulers of England 1042 to Present


Edward The Confessor was born in 1002. He ruled England and died in 1066. He married Edith (1045-1075), daughter of Godwin, Earl of Wessex.


Harold II was born in 1020. He acceded in January 1066 and in October 1066 he was killed at the Battle of Hastings. Harold was the second son of Godwin, Earl of Wessex and he was the last Saxon king of England.


William I was born in 1027. He acceded in 1066. He died in 1087. William was the bastard son of Robert, Duke of Normandy. He led the Norman invasion of England where Harold II was killed at Hastings. He was married to Matilda (1031-1083), daughter of Baldwin V, Count of Flanders, in 1053.


William II, also known as Rufus, was born in 1060. He acceded to the throne in 1087 and died in a hunting accident. He was the second son of William I and Matilda.

House of Normandy


Henry I was born in 1068. He acceded in 1100 and died in 1135. Henry I was the third son of William I. He was married to Matilda (1079-1118) in 1100.


Stephen of Blois was born in 1097. He acceded in 1135 and died in 1154. Stephen was the son of William I's daughter, Adela.

House of Plantagenet


Henry II was born in 1133. He acceded in 1154 to King of England. He was the son of Henry I's daughter, Matilda. He was married to Eleanor of Aquitane (1122-1204) in 1152. Eleanor was the divorced wife of Louis VII of France.


Richard I was born in 1157. He acceded in 1189 and died in 1199. He was married to Berengaria of Navarre (1165-1230) in 1191 in Cyprus.


King John was born in 1167. He acceded in 1199 and he died in 1216. He was married to Isabel of Gloucester in 1189 and was divorced in 1199. He married Isabella of Angouleme (1186-1246) in 1200.


Henry III was born in 1207. He acceded in 1216 and died in 1272. Henry III was the son of King John. He was married to Eleanor of Provence (1222-1291) in 1236.


Edward I was born in 1239. He acceded in 1272 and died in 1307. Edward I was the son of Henry III. He was the first to make his eldest son Prince of Wales. He was married to Eleanor of Castile (1244-1290) in 1254. In 1299, he married to Margaret of France (1279-1317).


Edward II was born on 25 Apr 1284 in Caernarvon, Wales. He acceded in 1307 and was murdered in 1327 in Berkeley Castle. Edward II was the fourth son of Edward I and Eleanor of Castile. In 1301, he was the first to be proclaimed the Prince of Wales and heir apparent to the throne. He was married to Isabella of France (1292-1358) in 1308.


Edward III was born on 13 Nov 1312 in Windsor. He was the eldest son of King Edward II. Involved by his mother, Isabella of France (1292-1358), in her intrigues against his father, he was proclaimed king in 1327 after his father was forced to abdicate. He died on 21 Jun 1377. During his minority, England was nominally ruled by a council of regency, but the actual power was in the hands of his mother, Isabella, and her paramour, Roger de Mortimer (1287?-1330). In 1330, Edward staged a palace coup and took the power into his own hands. He had Mortimer hanged and confined his mother to her home. He was married to Phillippa of Hainault (1314-1369) in 1338.


Richard II was born on 6 Jan 1367 in Bordeaux, France. He acceded in 1377 and abdicated in 1399. He died the following year and was the last of the Plantagenets. Richard II was the grandson of Edward III and the son of Edward, the Black Prince. He was married to Anne of Bohemia (1368-1394) in 1382. Anne was the daughter of the Holy Roman emperor, Charles IV. In 1396, he married Isabella of Valois (1388-1409).

House of Lancaster


Henry IV was born in 1367. He acceded in 1399 and died in 1413. Henry IV was the grandson of Edward III and the son of John of Gaunt. He was married to Mary Bohun (1369-1394) in 1381. In 1402 he married Joanna of Navarre (1369-1437).


Henry V was born in 1387. He acceded in 1413 and died in 1422. He was married to Catherine (1402-1437) in 1420.


Henry VI was born in 1421. He acceded in 1422 and was deposed in 1461. He died in 1471. He was married to Margaret of Anjou (1429-1482) in 1445.

House of York


Edward IV was born in 1442. He acceded in 1461and died in 1483. Edward IV was the great-great grandson of Edward III. He was married to Elizabeth Woodville (1437-1492) in 1464. Elizabeth was the first commoner and English woman to become Queen. This was the start of the House of York.


Edward V was born in 1470. He acceded in 1483 and was deposed immediately by his Uncle, Richard III. He and his younger brother, Richard were imprisoned in the Tower and never seen again. They were presumed murdered.


Richard III was born in 1452. He acceded in 1483 and was killed in 1485 in a battle on Bosworth Field. Richard III was the brother of Edward IV. He was married to Anne Neville (1454-1485) in 1473.

House of Tudor


Henry VII was born in 1457. He acceded in 1485 and died in 1509. He was married to Elizabeth of York (1465-1503) in 1486.


Henry VIII was born in 1491. He acceded in 1509 and died in 1547. He was first married to Catherine of Aragon (1485-1536) in 1509. He was divorced from Catherine in 1533. In 1533, he was married to Anne Boleyn (1507-1536). He beheaded Anne in 1536. Next, he married Jane Seymour (1509-1537) in 1536. He was married to Anne of Cleaves (1515-1557) in 1540 and divorced her that same year. He married to Catherine Howard (1520-1542) in 1540. She was was beheaded in 1540 and in 1543, he married Catherine Parr (1512-1548). Henry broke with the Catholic Church over the issue of divorce.


Edward VI was born in 1537. He acceded in 1547 and died in 1553. Edward was the son of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour.


Lady Jane Grey was born in 1537. She was married to Lord Guildford Dudley in 1553. She acceded in 1553 and was deposed 9 days later. She was executed on Tower Hill in 1554. Lady Jane Grey was the great-granddaughter of Henry VII.


Mary was born in 1516. She acceded in 1553 and died in 1558. Mary was the daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon. She was married to King Phillip of Spain (1527-1598) in 1554. Mary was a strong Catholic and reinstated the Catholic Church. The nursery rhyme
'Mary, Mary, quite contrary,
How does your garden grow?
With silver bells, and cockle shells,
And pretty maids all in a row.'
refers to Mary's support of the Catholic Church. The garden is England and refers to the status of the country after the return of Catholicism. The answer of 'silver bells', refers to the bells rung during services, the 'cockle shells' were worn in the hat by those who had visited the Holy Land and the 'pretty maids' were in the rows in the Nunneries.


Elizabeth I was born in 1533. She acceded in 1558 and died in 1603. She was also known as The Virgin Queen. Elizabeth was the daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn.

House of Stuart


James I was born in 1566. He acceded in 1603 and died in 1625. James was the first Stuart king, and the great-grandson of Henry VIII's sister, Margaret; son of Mary, Queen of Scots. He was James VI of Scotland prior to acceding to the throne of England. He was married to Anne of Denmark (1574-1619) in 1589.


Charles I was born in 1600. He acceded in 1625 and he was deposed in 1649. He was beheaded on the scaffold at Westminster. His insistence on the the divine right of kings caused a civil war in England. He was married to Henrietta Maria of France (1609-1669). Henrietta was the daughter of Henry of Navarre.



Oliver Cromwell (Lord Protector) was born in 1599. He was the leader of the English Revolution (1640 to 1660) and was virtually the dictator of England from 1653 until his death in 1658.


Richard Cromwell was born in 1626. He was the third and eldest surviving son of Oliver Cromwell and was trained by his father to be his successor. He was named Lord Protector after his father's death but was incapable of coping with the struggle for power between the army and Parliament, he resigned after nine months. He died in 1712.

House of Stuart (Restored in 1660)


Charles II was born May 29, 1630. He acceded in 1649 and died in 1685. Charles II was the son of Charles I. He was driven into exile after the Battle of Worcester in 1651. He was restored to the throne in 1660. He was married to Catherine of Braganza (1638-1705) in 1662.


James II was born in 1633. He acceded in 1685 and was deposed as King in 1689. He died in 1701. James II was the younger brother of Charles II. He was married to Anne Hyde (1637-1671) in 1660. In 1673, he married Mary of Modena (1658-1718).


William III & Mary jointly acceded the throne in 1689. William of Orange was born November 14, 1650 in The Hague, Netherlands. He was the posthumous son of William II (1626-50), prince of Orange and stadtholder of the Netherlands. William died on March 19, 1702. He married Mary, daughter of James II, in 1677. Mary was born in 1662 and died in 1694. William of Orange was her cousin.


Anne was born in 1665. She acceded in 1702 and died in 1714. Anne was Mary's sister; the second daughter of James II and Anne Hyde. She was married to Prince George of Denmark (1653-1708) in 1683.

House of Hannover


George I was born in 1660. He acceded in 1714 and died in 1727. He was married to Sophia Dorthea (1666-1726) in 1682.


George II was born in 1683. He acceded in 1727 and died in 1760. He was married to Caroline of Anspach (1683-1737) in 1705.


George III was born in 1738. He acceded in 1760 and died in 1820. George III was the grandson of George II. He was married to Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (1743-1818) in 1761.


George IV was born in 1762. He acceded in 1820 and died in 1830. George IV was the son of George III. He was married to Caroline of Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel (1768-1821) in 1795.


William IV was born in 1765. He acceded in 1830 and died in 1837. William was the third son of George III. He was married to Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen (1793-1849) in 1818.


Victoria was born in 1819. She acceded in 1837 and died in 1901. William IV died without a legitimate heir to the throne. Victoria, who was the daughter of George III's fourth son, Edward, Duke of Kent, inherited the throne. She was married to Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg Gotha (1819-1861) in 1840. Albert was Victoria's cousin.


Edward VII was born in 1841. He acceded in 1901 and died in 1910. Edward was the oldest son of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert. He was married to Princess Alexandria (1844-1925) in 1863.

House of Windsor


George V was born in 1865. He acceded in 1910 and died in 1936. George V was the second son of Edward VII. He was married to Princess Victoria Mary of Teck (1867-1953) in 1893.


Edward VIII, eldest son of George V and Mary of Teck, was born June 23, 1894. He acceded in January 1936 and abdicated in December 1936. He had the second shortest reign in English history. The shortest was that of his namesake, Edward V. He was alos the second bachelor to take the throne, the only other adult bachelor to succeed the throne was William II.


George VI was born in 1895. He acceded in 1936 when Edward VIII abdicated the throne to marry Mrs. Wallis Warfiels Simpson. George died in 1952. He was married to Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon (1900- ) in 1923.

1952- Present

Elizabeth II was born in 1926. She acceded in 1952 to Queen of England. She was married to Prince Phillip, Duke of Edinburgh (1921- ) in 1947.